It’s been a while since I posted a quick tutorial, but I was asked recently to explain when and how to use a semicolon. Some writers hate this innocuous little slip of a thing, mostly because they’re not sure what to do with it. Others seem to like the idea of it but use it indiscriminately, hoping they’ll get it right.
Here’s a quick and easy guide.
Holding things together
The semicolon can be used to join two parts of a sentence that are closely linked in meaning and are independent clauses.
Charlene ate all the chocolates; she should have felt guilty.
Charlene ate all the chocolates and she should have felt guilty are linked in meaning and are independent clauses—that is, each could stand as a separate sentence:
Charlene ate all the chocolates. She should have felt guilty.
Whether you join them with a semicolon or cast them as two separate sentences is a matter of choice and nuance. Joining them perhaps confers a greater sense of judgment on the greedy Charlene!
Note that independent clauses can also be linked with a coordinating conjunction—for example:
Charlene ate all the chocolates and she should have felt guilty.
Charlene at all the chocolates so she should have felt guilty.
Each of these also gives a different nuance to the sentence.
But a comma should not be used to join two independent clauses. The following example, known as a ‘comma splice’, is incorrect:*
Charlene ate all the chocolates, she should have felt guilty.
Pushing things apart
The semicolon can also be used to separate items in a narrative list that contain internal commas.
Take, for example, this list of items:
- three bags of coconut rough, one weighing 600 grams and the others, 400 grams
- six bars of dark chocolate, two of them 85% cocoa
- a silver-embossed, ribbon-tied foil carton of truffles
If this list were to be used in narrative in the usual way—that is, by separating each item with a comma—the sentence would look clumsy and be confusing to read, so semicolons are used instead of commas between the items:
That greedy Charlene ate three bags of coconut rough, one weighing 600 grams and the others, 400 grams; six bars of dark chocolate, two of them 85% cocoa; and a silver-embossed, ribbon-tied foil carton of truffles.
(OK, I confess: Charlene is me.)
I hope that helps!
*This ‘rule’ is often intentionally broken for creative purposes—for example, for rhythm, or to achieve a particular effect.
9 responses to “Quick tutorial: the semicolon”
That’s a lot of chocolate you’re eating there,Charlene. For me, grammar has always been someone who lived with grandma, hence I can’t tell you how much appreciate your excellent and timely tutorial on the semicolon.
Thanks, Marlish. I’ll pass that on to the greedy one.
“First rule: Do not use semicolons. They are transvestite hermaphrodites representing absolutely nothing. All they do is show you’ve been to college.” ― Kurt Vonnegut
I love semicolons, Mr Vonnegut, and not just because I’ve been to college 🙂
Love your tutorial Amanda 🙂
Ha to Vonnegut! Thanks, Rashida 🙂
It seems to me that the last semi-colon after 85%cocoa and before the word “and” is not required . Am I barking?
Required for structural parallelism and for clarity, Glenn 🙂
What an entertaining way to provide a lesson in grammar. Of course, I’d now like some chocolate too…
Thanks, Maureen. I’d like some too!